More about this item Keywords Albanian subtitles; coherence implementation; grammatical changes; text analysis; All these keywords.Statistics Access and download statistics Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eur:ejmsjr:496. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
According to skopos theory, the purpose of translation determines the means of translation. The case analysis method is used to analyze subtitle translation of Hello, Mr. Billionaire in this essay, which aims at summarizing the characteristics of subtitle translation and pointing out its limitations and assisting us in coming up with suggestions for more precise subtitle translation. Hello, Mr. Billionaire, shown in the last year, is one of the most popular Chinese comedies. This paper retrospects the classic comedy and further studies its subtitle translation to better disseminate Chinese culture abroad.
The main function of subtitle translation is to convey the precise message to the audience in an effective way and make them understand and appreciate the film and television limited by time and space. In order to achieve this goal, translators must obey some principles and adopt some techniques and strategies, as well as lay much emphasis on the cultural phenomenon.
Different from novel and poetry translation, which is more static and literary, subtitle translation is more colloquial because they interpret the original dialogues among characters. Therefore it must possess typical features of spoken English without involving obscure expressions or complex sentence patterns.
The language used in subtitle translation must be simple and plain so that ordinary people can understand completely and amuse themselves. Zhang Chunbai encourages translators to try their best to translate the dialogues which can be understood by most of the reviewers no matter the educated or the illiteracy (Zhang, 2003: p. 183) .
Readers of printed literary works may have opportunities to read the works repeatedly. In contrast, dialogues and subtitles will only stay on the screen for a few seconds. Given time for understanding the information is limited, subtitle translation should be with instantaneity and brevity.
Western scholars are the pioneers in studying subtitle translation. In 1960, a paper on subtitle translation, published on Babel title Cinema and et Translation, is considered to be the first paper studying subtitle translation, opening a new field of subtitle translation study.
In 1974, Cay Dollerup, a professor from University of Copenhagen, issued an essay On Subtitles in Television Program (Dollerup, 1974)  , which pointed out not only different kinds of mistakes occurred during the process of translating English TV programs into Danish subtitles, but also the significance of subtitles. The essay really drew public attention to subtitle translation.
In 1976, Istva Fodor, a renowned scholar in the field of western subtitle translation, published Film Dubbing: Phonetic, Semiotic, Esthetic and Psychological Aspects (Fodor, 1976)  , which laid the foundation of western subtitle translation study.
In the following ten years, the study on translation was not so popular. In 1987, an international conference on dubbing and subtitle translation hosted by European Broadcasting Union was held in Stockholm. It was the first open talk about dubbing and subtitling in Europe. This conference encouraged scholars to hold a series of conferences about subtitle translation. After that, numerous publications on film translation came out.
The study on subtitle translation in Europe reached its peak in the early 1990s. For instance, Overcoming Language Barriers in Television: Dubbing and Subtitling for European Audience (Luyken and Thomas, 1991)  came out, in which scholars analyzed different translation forms of television programs and enumerated numerous data. In 1992, Jonas Ivarsson, a Swedish subtitle translator published Subtitling for the Media: A Handbook of an Art (Ivarsson, 1992)  , in which he analyzed subtitle translation from a technical perspective. These books laid a solid foundation for further study on subtitle translation.
Admittedly, western scholars are the leading figures in the field of subtitle translation. At many universities in Europe, there are quite a few majors and courses for studying film and television subtitle translation.
Compared with western countries, the study on film and television translation in China started late and developed slowly. There are few theoretical work systematically discussing subtitle translation at home. Seminars and organizations on subtitle translation are also few in number. We have only a few translators and scholars putting forward several influential theories. Qian Shaochang, Ma Zhengqi are well-known scholars who have made great achievements in the filed of translation practice.
Processor Qian Shaochang is regarded as the pioneer in the fields of domestic film translation. In the paper Audio-visual Translation-an Increasingly Important Field in the Garden of Translation (Qian, 2000)  , he emphasized the significance of film subtitle translation, and delved into the linguistic differences between film and literature works. He also summarized three principles of film subtitle translation that are faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance.
These professors have paved the way for domestic study of subtitle translation and encouraged more researchers to pay attention to this field. However, compared with western countries, our studies in the field of subtitle translation practice and theoretical work still lag far behind. Therefore, more and more scholars and translators should devote themselves to this field and produce more creative and practical research results.
Based on research, it can be concluded that colloquialism, popularity, instantaneity and brevity are the four features of subtitle translation, which should not be ignored. Skopos theory gives a guideline for us to the case study of Hello, Mr. Billionaire through using flexible strategies such as reduction and paraphrase for detailed analysis concerning the film subtitle translation. Culture-loaded words are the most important and difficult part, which almost determines the understandings and attitudes of foreign audiences. What we should focus on is to improve the level of subtitle translation constantly so that it can be more understandable to facilitate overseas promotion of Chinese culture.
Results are presented in using low coherence interferometry in quantifying the reflectivity and imaging of different objects, such as tissue, paintings and fruits. All images have been obtained using en-face flying spot technology. This allows simultaneous generation of optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning images.
N2 - Results are presented in using low coherence interferometry in quantifying the reflectivity and imaging of different objects, such as tissue, paintings and fruits. All images have been obtained using en-face flying spot technology. This allows simultaneous generation of optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning images.
AB - Results are presented in using low coherence interferometry in quantifying the reflectivity and imaging of different objects, such as tissue, paintings and fruits. All images have been obtained using en-face flying spot technology. This allows simultaneous generation of optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning images.
The subtitle of the volume is \"Essays on Quantity, Coherence, and Induction\". The four papers in the first section don't really address a unified philosophical theme, but instead use unified mathematical techniques (Boolean algebras, Borel measure, unmeasurable sets) to address several different philosophical questions. The six papers in the second section all address issues related to coherence of degrees of belief. And the three papers in the third section give a particularly interesting take on Carnap's view of induction, arguing that Carnap's considered view was actually much more subjectivist than we usually realize. I will discuss each of these sections in turn, giving what I take to be the upshot of the corresponding projects.
In the four papers of the first section, the mathematics of measure theory is used to update Zeno's arguments, clarify a notion of possibility that might be implicit in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, give a more general understanding of the part-whole relationship, and strengthen the notion of probabilistic coherence assumed in Bayesian theory. In typical Skyrms-ian fashion, he shows how the mathematics could be used by metaphysicians and epistemologists to make various points, but is a bit cagey about whether one or another of these uses would be the right way to go.
I found the first paper, \"Zeno's Paradox of Measure\" (originally published in 1983, in a hard-to-find volume), quite interesting on the parallels between the ancient debate among Zeno, Democritus, Aristotle and others, and the late 19th century debate between Cantor, Borel, Lebesgue, Vitali, and their contemporaries. Given the parallels, he argues that the Banach-Tarski paradox is the mathematically rigorous version of Zeno's paradoxes. \"Tractarian Nominalism\" and \"Logical Atoms and Combinatorial Possibility\" use the mathematics of measure theory to develop Wittgenstein's idea that facts are primary, and that the world, objects, and properties are all logical constructions out of facts. The resulting picture is mathematically interesting, and deserves to be investigated more fully by metaphysicians. The major obstacle I see is the question of how this picture of the world can give rise to mathematical objects, which seem to play an important role in constituting th