Diversity Factor Bs 7671.pdf ((NEW))
Download ::: https://urllie.com/2tpmYl
In the context of electricity, the diversity factor is the ratio of the sum of the individual non-coincident maximum loads of various subdivisions of the system to the maximum demand of the complete system.
The coincidence factor is the reciprocal of the diversity factor. The simultaneity factor may be identical to either the coincidence factor or the diversity factor, depending on the sources of definition; the International Electrotechnical Commission defines the coincidence and simultaneity factors identically, with the diversity factor being their reciprocal. Since the only change in definition is to take the inverse, all one needs to know is if the factor is greater than or less than one.
In the heat networks design the coincidence factor is often called a diversity factor (CIBSE guidance, DS 439). So, in the context of hot water systems the diversity factor is always less than 1. For space heating, for more than 40 dwellings the factor levels out to approximately 0.62. For domestic hot water at 40 dwellings it is slightly below 0.1 and keeps decreasing further with additional connections.
The unofficial term diversity, as distinguished from diversity factor, refers to the percent of time available that a machine, piece of equipment, or facility has its maximum or nominal load or demand; a 70% diversity means that the device in question operates at its nominal or maximum load level 70% of the time that it is connected and turned on.
The diversified load is the total expected power, or \"load\", to be drawn during a peak period by a device or system of devices. The diversified load is the combination of each device's full load capacity, utilization factor, diversity factor, demand factor, and the load factor. This process is referred to as load diversification. The diversification factor is then defined as:
Diversity factor is commonly used for a number of engineering-related topics. One such instance is when completing a coordination study for a system. This diversity factor is used to estimate the load of a particular node in the system.
IEC 60364-7-722.311 also states that \"Since all the connecting points of the installation can be used simultaneously, the diversity factor of the distribution circuit shall be taken as equal to 1 unless a load control is included in the EV supply equipment or installed upstream, or a combination of both.\"
Studies examining the GM often report on alphaand beta-diversity and relative abundance of variousorganisms. Whereas alpha-diversity is used to compare microbial communities across groups of individuals to evaluate the role of a particular factorsuch as a psychiatric diagnosis on the number ofspecies (richness) and how well each species is represented (evenness), beta-diversity measures theinterindividual diversity between samples lookingfor similarities of communities compared with othersamples analyzed.12
Although preliminary, in patients with psychiatricdisorders, the richness of the GM may be compromised, but diversity appears to be preserved. Whilealpha-diversity was not discriminatory between different types of psychiatric conditions, beta-diversitydemonstrated a different clustering in patients withMDD, psychosis, and schizophrenia compared withhealthy controls.12
In patients with mental health issues, the effect of medications on the GM is an area of fervent research, although it is also fraught with limitations and confounders such as diet, age, environmental factors, hormones, sex, concomitant medications, seasonal variations, comorbidities, etc.21
A difference in the GM of patients taking antipsychotics has also been found. Drug-naïve, first-episode patients with schizophrenia had lower alpha-diversity and significant differences in beta-diversity compared with healthy controls prior to the initiation of antipsychotics. Following 24 weeks of risperidone therapy, there was normalization of the GM to that of healthy controls as evidenced by decreased abundance of Lachnoclostridium, increased abundance of Ramboutsia, and an increase in alpha-diversity. Further, treatment response was associated with baseline levels of Lachnoclostridium and Ramboutsia, indicating that these can possibly serve as biomarkers for efficacy. Lachnoclostridium and Ramboutsia both belong to Firmicutes phylum. Ramboutsia is involved in the production of SCFAs; low levels of this bacteria are thought to be associated with disturbances in the glutamate-gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA)-glutamate cycle and with the astrocyte-neuron metabolism system. Additionally, Lachnoclostridium appears to be involved intryptophan metabolism.18
In a study in which stool samples were collectedfrom 40 patients with MDD and anxiety, a negativecorrelation was found between the dose of antipsychotics and gut diversity. This relationship wasconfirmed even when BMI and anxiety severityscores were accounted for. Investigators also foundthat there was a significant difference in both thealpha-diversity change in patients taking antipsychotics between baseline and the endpoint of thestudy, and there was a significant difference in betadiversity between patients taking antipsychoticsand those not receiving the psychotropic agents.34
A naturalistic study of 40 patients with depressionand anxiety found that there was a significant difference in alpha-diversity change only among those taking antipsychotics when comparing baseline to theend of the study; that beta-diversity also differedbetween antipsychotic users and nonusers; and thatthe dose of antipsychotics had a negative relationshipwith alpha-diversity in patients with depression andanxiety. Alterations in neurotransmitters were alsoobserved with antidepressant use, including changesin GABA synthesis and degradation. Use of antipsychotics was associated with alterations in tryptophansynthesis and degradation, and anxiolytics were associated with increased GABA synthesis and decreased tryptophan synthesis.30,34
Involvement of the GM may contribute to antipsychotic-induced weight gain since the GMBA can regulate metabolism, homeostasis, and energy balance.33,41 Antipsychotics may do this by interacting and changing the abundance of the GM.42 The administration of second-generation antipsychotics is associated with an increase in Firmicutes abundance relative to Bacteroidetes, and this may contribute to antipsychotic-induced metabolic alterations, such as adiposity, lipogenesis, and increases in plasma-free fatty superoxide dismutase and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistence levels. These findings are indicative of the presence of low-level inflammation and decreased energy expenditure secondary to resting metabolic rate suppression.9 However, although antipsychotics such as olanzapine are associated with alterations in the GM, clinical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce.43 Extrapolating in vitro data to clinical effects is difficult because it is unclear if a drug reaches sufficient concentrations in the GI tract needed to replicate the laboratory findings. Additionally, factors such as exposure time, dose, solubility, distribution in fluids, volume of drug, transit time, ability of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the GI tract, effects of the presence of other medications, and uptake and metabolism of the drug by both human cells and by bacteria can affectresults.44
We know that as we become more representative of the communities where we live and work, and the people around the world who we aspire to serve, we become better at helping everyone on the planet achieve more. Diversity and inclusion continues to be a core priority for every employee at Microsoft and is incorporated into our performance and career development approach. To accelerate the inclusion journey for employees, as well as our ecosystem, we hosted Include 2021, a global event focused on diversity and inclusion, and continue to invest in shared understanding by publishing resources and learnings broadly. And in the first year of our commitment to address inequity and racial injustice, we are well on our way to doubling the number of Black and African American, Hispanic, and Latinx employees in leadership positions at Microsoft in the United States by 2025.
At Microsoft we have an inherently inclusive mission: to empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more. We think of diversity and inclusion as core to our business model, informing our actions to impact economies and people around the world. There are billions of people who want to achieve more, but have a different set of circumstances, abilities, and backgrounds that often limit access to opportunity and achievement. The better we represent that diversity inside Microsoft, the more effectively we can innovate for those we seek to empower.
We strive to include others by holding ourselves accountable for diversity, driving global systemic change in our workplace and workforce, and creating an inclusive work environment. Through this commitment we can allow everyone the chance to be their authentic selves and do their best work every day. We support multiple highly active Employee Resource Groups for women, families, racial and ethnic minorities, military, people with disabilities, or who identify as LGBTQI+, where employees can go for support, networking, and community-building. As described in our 2020 Proxy Statement, annual performance and compensation reviews of our senior leadership team include an evaluation of their contributions to employee culture and diversity. To ensure accountability over time, we publicly disclose our progress on a multitude of workforce metrics including:
In fiscal year 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic continued to impact our business operations and financial results. Cloud usage and demand benefited as customers accelerate their digital transformation priorities. Our consumer businesses also benefited from the remote environment, with continued demand for PCs and pro